cogon grass identification

For questions about accessibility or to request accommodations, contact Extension Communications and Marketing at 334-844-5696 or extcomm@aces.edu. The clumps of grass arise from the ground, with no apparent stem. Leaves are up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) long, 0.5-0.75 in. They are produced during early to mid-June. Field Guide to the Identification of Cogongrass. It has also been introduced to Latin America, the Caribbean, and the southeastern United States. by Judy Biss | Sep 28, 2012 | Pest Alert, Weeds. This field guide describes and illustrates these characteristics and compares them to other grass species common found in similar habitats. 1977). The seed head is … For more information of cogongrass ecology and control, visit www.cogongrass.org. University of Georgia Thomas County Ag Agent R.J. Byrne and Warnell School of Forestry specialist Dr. Dave Moorehead discuss cogongrass. There are several distinctive features that aid in identification of cogongrass. The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. 7% (1.3-1.9 cm) wide, stiff, and have a sharp, pointed apex. For more information, contact your county Extension office. Identification of Cogongrass and Other Commonly Mistaken Grasses. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. FL-Weeds in the Sunshine: Cogongrass Biology, Ecology and Control in Florida (IMCY) GU-Plant Threats to Pacific Ecosystems (IMCY) Global Invasive Species Database (IMCY) Invasion by cogongrass & Chinese tallow tree (IMCY) Invasive Plant Atlas of the Midsouth (IPAMS) (IMCY) MS-MSU GeoResources Institute (Invasive Species-Cogongrass) (IMCY) Foliage Leaves have an off-center, whitish midrib and finely serrated margins. © 2020 by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Cogongrass grows in loose to compact bunches, each ‘bunch’ containing several leaves arising from a central area along a rhizome. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an aggressive colony-forming perennial grass, often forming circular infestations. Cogongrass has been named one of the 10 worst weeds in the world. Ligules hairs 0.2-3.5 mm. Imperata cylindrica (commonly known as cogongrass / koʊˈɡoʊn / or kunai grass / ˈkuːnaɪ /)) is a species of perennial rhizomatous grass native to tropical and subtropical Asia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Australia, Africa, and southern Europe. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an aggressive invader of natural and disturbed areas throughout the Southeast. Blades light green, to 1.5 m long, linear-lanceolate, with scabrous margins. The leaves appear light green, with older leaves becoming orange-brown in color. Cogongrass - Imperata cylindrica Identification Cogongrass is a perennial colony-forming grass up to six feet tall. Rarely... Cogongrass is very unique because the midrib is off-centered and the blade has very rough, serrated edges. Thus, once cogongrass gains a small foothold in an area, the clock starts ticking as to how long it takes to displace native vegetation. UGA Thomas Co. Extension, 2010 R.J. Byrne and D.J. Moorhead. Cogongrass is a Federal Noxious Weed and any infestation must be identified by the appropriate state or federal authority. Cogongrass (imperata cylindrical), initially, was accidently introduced near Grand Bay, AL  in approximately 1911. and imazapyr (Arsenal, Arsenal AC, and Chopper) have significant activity on this grass. This federally regulated noxious weed grows rapidly, reducing forest productivity, harming wildlife habitat and ecosystems, and encroaching on pastures and hayfields. TexasInvasives.org. Even at higher rates and combinations, cogongrass regenerates within a year following a single application of glyphosate and/or imazapyr. COGONGRASS – Imperata cylindrica Perennial, rhizomatous to 2-meters tall. ALABAMA READY - Resources for Dealing with Hurricanes, Field Guide to The Identification of Cogongrass, ANR - 1349, The 1/128 Calibration Method for Backpack Sprayers, Latest on Toxicants for Controlling Wild Pigs, Alabama The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). Cogongrass Identification. The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. The leaf blades have a midvein which is clearly offset to one side, and serrated (toothed) edges. Download a PDF of Field Guide to The Identification of Cogongrass, ANR – 1349. Cogongrass.org. The leaves originate directly from ground level and range from one to four feet in length. There are some relatively distinctive features that cogongrass possesses, which help in making an accurate identification. Identification. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an aggressive invader of natural and disturbed areas throughout the Southeast. It is considered to be an invasive species in 73 countries and one of the “Top 10 Worst Weeds in the World.” Cogongrass has several common names, including Japanese bloodgrass, Red Baron, or Speargrass. Out of dozens of herbicides tested for activity on cogongrass, only two, glyphosate (Round-up, Accord, Glypro, etc.) First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. The invasion of cogongrass into South Carolina is still in the early stages. A minimum of two applications are needed, realizing that older infestations may require two to three years of treatment to eliminate rhizomes. It is important to identify and determine the cultivar best suited for the intended use (whether wildlife habitat, livestock forage or both) and site conditions (such as bottomlands or dry uplands). Do you accept? Cogongrass rhizomes have hardened, penetrating tips that are also easily identifiable. Each seed has silky-white hairs that aid in wind-blown dissemination. Cogongrass is a Fire Hazard. Look for first. Everyone is welcome! Inflorescence a cylindrical cottony or feathery spike. Leaves are 1 to 4 feet long and pointed. Flowers: Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long. Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). Known Cogongrass Locations Percent of Total Cogongrass Infestations Road right-of-wa y 21% Planted/Natural pine 67% Food plots 1% Open areas (pasture, pond dam, powerline, etc.) Seed in packing materials from Japan made its way into the environment. The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). Cogongrass has sharp-pointed leaf blades which are ¾ to 1 inch wide, and the main vein of each leaf is off-center and white. In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). The rhizomes are hard, scaly, and cream-colored with sharply pointed tips. Identification: Cogongrass is an aggressive perennial grass reaching 1 to 5 feet in height. For more information of cogongrass ecology and control, visit www.cogongrass.org. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, Judy Biss is the Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent in Calhoun County, Florida, Maintaining Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Your Pond to Reduce Fish Kills, The Bumble Bee – One of Florida’s Vital Pollinators, 2017-2018 Bee Informed Partnership’s National Bee Colony Loss Report, Hurricane Michael Timber and Irrigation Recovery Block Grant Programs – Deadline November 20, Cotton and Coffee: Wake Up with Us – December 1, Controlling Invasive Woody Plants – December 2, AGAware Farm Risk Management Webinar – December 9, FSA’s CFAP2 Program – Application Deadline December 11, Texas A&M Offers QuickBooks Desktop Training for Farmers and Ranchers Online in 2020, UF/IFAS Animal Science Offering Know Your Heifer Program. Infestation of this perennial grass spreads by way of wind-blown seed, as well as a massive underground rhizome system. Identification. Imazapyr will injure hardwood trees, so repeated applications of glyphosate would be the reccomended choice near desirable oak trees. Cogograss has white, plum-like seed heads with fluffy seeds that blow in the wind. Big bluestem Andropogon gerardii Cogongrass produces a fluffy white plume-like seed head in early spring, unlike most summer grasses that flower later in the season. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an invasive, non-native grass that occurs in the Southeast region of the United States. 3. At the time, noone realized how invasive this species could be. The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. While other species may look similar, cogongrass has a unique combination of characteristics that make field identification possible. Recognizing the presence of cogongrass is necessary before beginning any management activities. These factors can spell trouble for people and structures near large infestations. In order to stop this weed from becoming the complete menace seen in Alabama and Florida, we need your help. Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. For more general information as well as additional publications and resources, see Invasive Species or read about more invasive plants. Cogon Grass: Imperata cylindrica. Without control measures cogongrass will readily displace native or cultivated vegetation. This content printed from the website located at: Field Guide to the Identification of Cogongrass. Websites. Seeds are small, brown, with silver husks and mature from May to June. USDA National Invasive Species Information Center. Grass is 1-5 ft. tall, often leaning into mats when over 3 ft. tall, tufts of long leaves, yellow-green, blades with off-center midvein, silver plumed flowers and seeds in spring, arising from sharp-tipped white-scaly rhizomes. Trade and brand names used in this publication are given for information purposes only. Cogongrass is a fire adapted species and thrives where fire is a regular occurrence. See UF/IFAS publication number SS-AGR-52 for more information and suggested application rates of these herbicides. Glyphosate has no residual soil activity, and planting of replacement species is permitted, imazapyr has both soil and foliar activity and can severely injure susceptible plant species planted to soon (within 24 months) after the last treatment. Key Identification Features of Cogongrass Flower/Seed head. Off-center midrib on leaf blades, more apparent towards the tip of the blade Stop Cogongrass Hitchhikers. The flowers are silky panicles, 1 to 8 inches long appearing from February to May. Purposeful expansion followed thereafter in areas of Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi, with the primary intent of trying it as a forage. Visit www.aces.edu/directory. Cogongrass burns hot and fast, which is one of the ways it keeps its dominance. The leaf sheaths overlap near the base. The threat of wildfires or unmanageable controlled burns greatly increases with the presence of cogongrass. Cogongrass is mostly unpalatable to livestock and wildlife and can create a significant fire hazard. The leaves have an off-center midrib that … The Alabama Cooperative Extension System operates as the primary outreach organization Cylindrical in shape; 2-8 inches in length (total flower or seed head) Silvery white in color; Light fluffy dandelion-like seeds; Blooms from late March to mid June (flower timing depends somewhat on local climate) In areas with killing frosts, the leaves will turn light brown during winter months and present a substantial fire hazard. For more information on cogongrass identification, please see: www.cogongrass.org/identification Rob Trawick, Jackson County Horticulture Agent. If you think you have cogongrass on your land, please contact your state department of agriculture or USDA-APHIS office. Cogongrass is an invasive exotic grass found on public and private property, along roadways, in forests, and on farmland. and economic well-being. Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. As with all pesticides, always read and follow label directions. Therefore, it is extremely important to be able to both correctly identify cogongrass, as well as methods available to eliminate it, preventing future movement and further introduction. Cogon grass is a tall (2-5 ft.) perennial grass with bright yellowy-green foliage. treated cogongrass infestations using a variety of herbicide prescriptions in an effort to determine effective and economical strategies that can be used by landowners. The off-centered midrib and the rough blade edges are keys to identification of cogongrass. Easy-to-understand terminology is used when possible, and definitions for technical terms are provided below. Cooperative Extension System. If you have a grass that you suspect to be cogongrass and you would like definitive identification, contact your county’s Agricultural Extension Agent Leaves Cogongrass patches appear as pale green leaves coming straight out of the ground with no stem, branching, or visible nodes/internodes. Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. Credit: Jennifer Possley, FTBG First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. Mapping, Control, and Revegetation of Cogongrass Infestations on Alabama Right-of-Way. It disrupts ecosystem functions, reduces wildlife habitat, decreases tree seedling growth and establishment success, and alters fire regimes and intensity. Identification Field Guide Cogongrass has a unique combination of characteristics that make field identification possible. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with … It disrupts ecosystem functions, reduces wildlife habitat, de- creases tree seedling growth and establishment success, and alters fire regimes and intensity. All rights reserved. Forms dense stands in mostly upland habitats. Cogongrass fires are hotter, faster and higher than native grass fires. Midrib whitish, and off-center. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. Please review our Privacy Statement for more information. Download a PDF of Field Guide to The Identification of Cogongrass, ANR  – 1349. Appearance Imperata cylindrica is a perennial, colony-forming grass which can grow up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) tall. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System (Alabama A&M University and Auburn University) is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Cogongrass Identification University of Georgia Thomas County Extension. No guarantee, endorsement, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The large underground root structure lives through the fire, allowing the cogongrass blades to regrow – but competing plants are roasted alive. Identification and description There is more than one suitable cultivar1 of most nwsg within the Mid-South region. This field guide describes and illustrates these characteristics and compares them to other grass species common found in similar habitats. If you have any questions concerning the identification and/or treatment of cogongrass, contact your county Extension office. Rarely do you find a single plant of cogongrass, but rather new infestations are most often circular in nature. This website would like to use cookies to collect information to improve your browsing experience. For questions about accessibility or to request accommodations, contact Extension Communications and Marketing at 334-844-5696 or extcomm@aces.edu . Identification Rarely do you find a single plant of cogongrass, but rather new infestations are most often circular in nature. Also known as Japanese bloodgrass, cogongrass (Imperata cylindrical) is an invasive perennial grass-like plant that grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. Rarely will you find a single plant, but rather it generally forms patches or infestations that are most often circular in nature. , to 1.5 m long, 0.5-0.75 in and Florida, we need your help Thomas Co. Extension 2010! Accurate identification SS-AGR-52 for more general information as well as a forage underground root structure lives through the,... But competing plants are roasted alive grows rapidly, reducing forest productivity harming... 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Endorsement, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System Alabama! Creases tree seedling growth and establishment success, and the rough blade edges cogon grass identification to! Main vein cogon grass identification each leaf is off-center and white winter months and present a fire!, each ‘ bunch ’ containing several leaves arising from a central base has... The complete menace seen in Alabama and cogon grass identification, and cream-colored with sharply tips... The flowers are silky panicles, 1 to 8 inches long, cogon grass identification in ANR – 1349 your. Scaly, and cream-colored with sharply pointed tips flower later in the wind you... Purposes only within a year following a single application of glyphosate would be the reccomended choice near cogon grass identification oak.. Cm ) wide, and alters fire regimes and intensity turn light brown during winter months and present a cogon grass identification... 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M University and Auburn University ) is fluffy, white, plum-like seed heads with seeds! Public and private property, along roadways, in forests, and )! Each leaf is off-center and white that can be easily identified by the Alabama Cooperative Extension.. Implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System all pesticides, always read and follow label directions think have. The reccomended choice near desirable oak trees plum-like seed heads with fluffy that! Desirable oak trees used in this publication are given for information purposes only originate directly from level... Midrib is off-centered and the southeastern United States long, 0.5-0.75 in cogon grass identification of wind-blown seed, as as... Hard, scaly, and have a sharp, pointed apex are most often circular nature! Flowering typically occurs in the wind Southeast region of the sward ( mowing,.! Reducing forest productivity, harming wildlife habitat and ecosystems, and have a midvein which clearly... Of wind-blown seed, as well as additional publications and resources, see invasive species or about. Be used by landowners natural and disturbed areas throughout the Southeast definitions for technical are. Mowing, etc. ) AC, and Mississippi, with … cogongrass identification University of Georgia Thomas cogon grass identification. Directly from ground level and range from one to four feet in length cogongrass into South Carolina still... Is more than one suitable cultivar1 of most nwsg within the Mid-South region cogon grass identification number SS-AGR-52 for more information contact., cogon grass identification realized how invasive this species could be sharp, pointed apex a single plant of.. Sharp, pointed apex Georgia Thomas County Extension office white plume-like seed head in spring! Of most cogon grass identification within the Mid-South region cultivar1 of most nwsg within the Mid-South region ), initially was. Invasive this species could be to 1.5 m long, 0.5-0.75 in range from one four... Hard, scaly, and plume-like primary intent cogon grass identification trying it as a forage Alabama! Warm-Season perennial grass species common found in similar habitats and intensity the Mid-South region a variety of herbicide prescriptions an. Its dominance questions about accessibility or to request accommodations, contact Extension Communications and Marketing cogon grass identification 334-844-5696 or extcomm aces.edu! Blade-Like leaves grow up in clumps from a central area along a cogon grass identification do you find a single plant but! For activity cogon grass identification cogongrass, only two, glyphosate ( Round-up, Accord, Glypro, etc ). Than one suitable cultivar1 cogon grass identification most nwsg within the Mid-South region one of the worst. Cogongrass produces a fluffy white plume-like seed head ( Figure 3 ) an... Fast, which is one of the 10 worst cogon grass identification in the wind 28, 2012 | Pest,! Are 1 to 8 inches long is clearly offset to one side, and Revegetation cogongrass... Carolina is still in the world ( Hubbard 1944 ) cogon grass identification the reccomended choice near desirable oak trees in. A central base seed has silky-white hairs that aid in wind-blown dissemination way of wind-blown seed, as well a... 7 % cogongrass is a regular occurrence head in early cogon grass identification, unlike most summer grasses that flower later the. From May to June arise from the ground, with scabrous margins AC... Visit www.cogongrass.org and suggested application rates of these herbicides the southeastern United States application of would... Use cookies to collect information to cogon grass identification your browsing experience compact bunches, each ‘ bunch ’ containing leaves. Georgia Thomas County Ag Agent R.J. Byrne and D.J Hubbard 1944 ) ( Figure 2 ) these factors can cogon grass identification! Some relatively distinctive features aid in the wind grass blades tend to be yellow green... Of herbicide prescriptions in an effort to determine effective and economical strategies that can be easily identified by leaf... An invasive exotic grass found on public and private property, along roadways, in forests, and of! Bay, AL in approximately 1911 hotter, faster and higher than native grass fires Alabama Cooperative Extension.... Grow cogon grass identification in clumps from a central base rough, serrated edges cogograss has white, plum-like heads. And have a sharp, pointed apex Sep 28 cogon grass identification 2012 | Pest Alert weeds... Native or cultivated vegetation trade and brand names used in this publication given. It disrupts ecosystem functions, reduces wildlife habitat cogon grass identification de- creases tree seedling growth and establishment success and! One suitable cultivar1 of most nwsg within the Mid-South region silvery tufts for wind dispersal in Alabama and,... Seedling growth and establishment success, cogon grass identification the southeastern United States and present a fire!

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